Table of Contents


    Guity Etemad

    ʿAliqoli Khan learned English and French at the Dār al-Fonun School and, with his older brother, Ḥosaynqoli Khan Kalāntar, frequented traditional Persian gymnasia, where the latter was converted to the Bahai faith by a wrestler called Ostād Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Kāši, and he in turn led ʿAliqoli Khan into the new faith in about 1895.

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    Minou Foadi

    title of Āqā Moḥammad Qāʾeni, a prominent Bahai author and apologist (1829-92).


    Vahid Rafati

    (1831-1892), Persian Bahai poet, teacher, and chronicler of Babi history.


    Ernest Tucker

    ruler of Iran, 1736-47. He rose from obscurity to control an empire that briefly stretched across Iran, northern India, and parts of Central Asia, with a reputation as a skilled military commander and with  success in battle against numerous opponents, including the Ottomans and the Mughals.

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    Evelin Grassi

    (1792-1842), Transoxianan poetess of Ḵᵛoqand, who wrote in both Persian–with the pen name Maknuna–and Čaḡatāy under the pseudonyms of Nādera and Kāmela.


    Houra Yavari

    Naderpour received his primary education in Tehran and in 1942 was enrolled at Irānšahr high school. As was the case with a good number of his peers, he developed an interest in politics, and joined the nationalist Pan-Iranist Party for a short period of time. He later joined the Youth Organization of the Tudeh Party.

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    Pierre Oberling

    a tribe of Fārs and the Tehran region. Although of Turkic origin, the Nafar of Fārs have become a mixture of Turkic, Arab, and Lor elements.


    Rose Aslan

    also known as al-Najaf al-Ašraf, a town in southern Iraq and one of the most important pilgrimage destinations for the Shiʿites. The city is tied to the death of ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb and his burial site, and has been home to many illustrious religious scholars over the past thousand years, rivaling Qom as a center of Shiʿite scholarship.


    Mansoureh Ettehadieh

    a Qajar princess whose life spanned the late Qajar and early Pahlavi eras (b. 1231-32 Š./1853; d. 1311 Š./1932).

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    Michel M. Mazzaoui

    (d. 918/1512), the third holder of the office of wakil-e nafs-e nafis-e Homāyun under Shah Esmāʿil Ṣafawi, the representative of the Shah both in his religious and in his political capacity.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the administrative center of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (NAR) with its own elected representative assembly, within the Republic of Azerbaijan but separated from it by Armenia.


    Hushang Ettehad and EIr

    (1880-1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts.

  • NAḴL

    Peter Chelkowski

    As ritual objects for the ʿĀšurāʾ, naḵls are built from wood in various sizes, from simple constructions that can be carried by two persons to colossal structures about three stories high that have to be supported by hundreds of men.

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    Mohammad Karimi Zanjani Asl

    14th-century Češti mystic and author. Though originally from Naḵšab (or Nasaf, in Transoxiana), his family emigrated to India at the time of Mongol incursions.

  • NALÎ

    Keith Hitchins

    Through his extensive travels and continuous studies Nali acquired a solid knowledge of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, which allowed him to draw on three rich literary traditions for his own work. His work, and his patriotic sentiments, were much affected, too, by the Ottoman government’s campaign to eliminate the autonomous Kurdish principalities.

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    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Women’s journal), a biweekly paper published in Tehran between 1 Mordād 1299 and 24 Khordād 1300 Š. (23 July 1920-14 June 1921).


    Nassereddin Parvin

    (The journal of the women of Iran), a weekly paper published in Tehran from Farvard in 1317 until Tir 1319 Š. (March 1938-June 1940).


    Hubertus von Gall

    a perpendicular cliff wall in Fārs, about 6 km northwest of Persepolis, a site unusually rich in Achaemenid and Sasanian monuments.

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    Ursula Weber

    Sasanian king (r. 293-302 CE), who was crowned only at the advanced age of approximately 60-65 after the short reign of his grandnephew, Bahrām III.

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    Hermann Landolt

     b. Moḥammad, 7th/13th-century mystical thinker and scholar from Nasaf (Naḵšab) in Transoxania (present Qarshi or Karshi in Uzbekistan), author of many works in Persian.