Table of Contents


    William Beeman

    an Arabic term used in Persian to define a broad complex of behaviors in Iranian life that mark and underscore differences in social status.


    C. E. Bosworth

    an extensive general history composed in Persian by  b. Serāj-al-Din Jowzjāni, who for the first part of his career lived in Ḡur under the Ghurid sultans and latterly in Muslim India under the Moʿezzi or Šamsi Delhi sultans.


    Elton L. Daniel

    one of the most eminent Iranian scholars of the early Abbasid era, author of a celebrated commentary on the Qorʾān as well as the most important of the classical Arabic historical texts still extant.


    Louis Medoff

    eminent Twelver Shiʿite philosopher and author of a famous exegesis of the Qur’an, al-Mizān.

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  • TABRIZ v. The city in the 19th century

    James D. Clark

    Tabriz surpassed Isfahan in population early in the nineteenth century to become the most populous city in Iran. The city was centrally situated relative to the three neighboring regions with which most of its trade was conducted and to which people from the province traveled: the Caucasus, eastern Anatolia, and central Iran. 

  • TABRIZ x. MONUMENTS x(1). The Blue Mosque

    Sandra Aube

    (Pers. Masjed-e kabud), also known as Masjed-e Moẓaffariya, built during the rule of the Qarā Qoyunlu dynasty (1351-1469) and completed in 1465. The extant tilework documents artistic connections with contemporary architecture in Timurid Khorasan and in the Ottoman Empire.

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  • TADAYYON, Sayyed Moḥammad Birjandi

    Hormoz Davarpanah

    (b. Birjand, 1881; d. United States, December 1951), early 20th-century educationist and politician.


    Mahmoud Fotoohi

    a compilation of short biographical notices on some one thousand poets of the Safavid period.


    Mohammad Esteʿlami

    (Saints’ Lives), a hagiographic account of the sayings and miraculous deeds (karāmāts) of eminent sufis and other religious figures from the early Islamic centuries.


    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    (Memorial for kings), Persian manual from the transitional period between the collapse of the Safavid empire at the end of the reign of Shah Solṭān Ḥosayn (r. 1694-1722) and the early Afghan period in Persia.