Table of Contents


    Christian Bromberger

    a city in the province of Gilān.  It is located at 37°12′ N, long 50°0′ E, to the east of the lower reaches of Safidrud at an altitude of 4 m.



    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57). See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ.

  • LAHUTI, Abu’l-Qasem

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1887-1957), Marxist poet, political activist, and an important contributor to the modern of poetry of Tajikistan.


    Mohammad Reza [Faribors] Hamzeh’ee

    (or Lakk), an ethnic term used for a large number of people residing in a vast part of present-day Iran. The original meaning of the word in Persian, “hundred thousands,” apparently refers to the original number of families that constituted a nomadic tribal confederation.


    V. A. Livshits

    “Rocky sacred place (?),” name applied to gorges not far from the settlement of Kuč, 29 km southeast of Birjand in Khorasan Province (ostān). 


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Arab dynasty that ruled in central Iraq with their capital at Ḥira for roughly three centuries, from about 300 to 602 CE, generally but intermittently as the allies and clients of the Sasanian kings of Persia.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an important fortress of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in the mountainous district of Rudbār, within the region of medieval Islamic Daylam in northwestern Iran.


    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    a city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in Gilān located at lat 37°11′ N, long 50°09′ E on the Langarud River, which cuts through the city, dividing it into two parts.



    name of a Seleucid military colony in Media. See NEHAVAND.


    Daniel T. Potts

    a small island in the Straits of Hormuz to the south of Hormuz Island, located approximately 45 kms southeast of Bandar Abbas and 18 kms southeast of the eastern end of Qeshm Island at lat 26°51′0″ N, long 56°21′0″ E.