Table of Contents


    W. Madelung

    a dynasty ruling Rūyān and Rostamdār from the late 11th to the 16th century with the title of ostandār and later of king.

  • BĀFQ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a small oasis town of central Iran (altitude 1,004 m) on the southern fringe of the Dašt-e Kavīr, 100 km southeast of Yazd in the direction of Kermān.


    H. Algar

    AYATOLLAH (1875-1946), a religious scholar known for his forthright opposition to Reżā Shah Pahlavī.

  • BĀḠ (BAGH)

    Multiple Authors

    “garden.”  In Iranian agriculture, the word bāḡ means, more precisely, an enclosed area bearing permanent cultures— all kinds of cultivated trees and shrubs, as opposed to fields under annual crops.

  • BĀḠ i. Etymology

    W. Eilers

    Bāḡ, the Middle and New Persian word for “garden,” as also the Sogdian βāγ, strictly meant “piece” or “patch of land.”

  • BĀḠ ii. General

    M. Bazin

    Whatever the water source may be, the gardens are usually clustered together close to the head-race of the irrigation network, around the village or just below it. This location allows to irrigate them as frequently as possible, every six to twelve days in the hot season, whereas the fields lying underneath are much less often irrigated.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀḠ iii. In Persian Literature

    W. L. Hanaway

    Bāḡ appears both as an object of description and as the prime source of nature imagery in Persian literature. 

  • BĀḠ iv. In Afghanistan

    N. H. Dupree

    The people inhabiting this land have cherished all forms of gardens, which have become an integral part of Afghan culture.


    P. O. Skjærvø

    one of the Avestan nasks of the gāhānīg group, that is, texts connected with the Gāθās; it is now lost almost in its entirety. This nask is listed in the survey of the Avesta in Dēnkard 8.1.9.



    See BĀḠ iv.