Table of Contents


    Multiple Authors

    The profound influence of Arabic in Iran can be traced to its social, religious, and political significance in the wake of the Muslim conquest, when it became the language of the dominant class, the language of religion and government administration, and by extension, the language of science, literature, and Koranic studies.

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE i. Arabic elements in Persian

    A. A. Ṣādeqī

    The proportion of Arabic words in Persian was about thirty percent in the 4th/10th century and reached some fifty percent in the 6th/12th. 

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE ii. Iranian loanwords in Arabic


    Loanwords in Arabic, traditionally called moʿarrab (arabicized) or daḵīl (foreign words), include a considerable number of Iranian elements.

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE iii. Arabic influences in Persian literature

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    any inquiry into the early development of Islamic Persian language and literature is faced with the same problem—the absence of contemporary material.

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE iv. Arabic literature in Iran

    V. Danner

    comprises the works of the early Arab conquerors and those of the Persians who wrote in Arabic. The latter, by far more numerous, ensured Iran a major role in the development of Arabic letters.

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE v. Arabic Elements in Persian

    John R. Perry

    The following will survey the topic under the following rubrics: Lexical statistics; Phonology and orthography; Loanword classes; Grammatical elements; Semantics; History and evolution.


    Z. Safa

    a poet and mystic of the 8th/14th century.


    Y. Bregel

    a dynasty of Chingisid origin that ruled in Ḵᵛārazm from the beginning of the 10th/16th century.


    ʿA, Aḥmadī and R. G. Tuck, Jr.

    or ARACHNIDA, Pers. ʿankabūtīān,  the largest chelicerate class of the invertebrate phylum Arthropoda. Zoogeographically, the Iranian arachnid fauna differs little from that of adjacent regions. General behavior and life history information available from authoritative entomology and invertebrate zoology texts applies to Iranian representatives as well.


    R. Schmitt

    province in the eastern part of the Achaemenid empire around modern Kandahār, which was inhabited by the Iranian Arachosians or Arachoti. 

  • ARĀK

    X. de Planhol

    Arāk was originally the popular name of Solṭānābād, a town in western Iran, but is now the official name as well.

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  • ARAK iii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011.

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    W. Eilers

    name of uncertain meaning given in Darius I’s inscription (DB 1.37) to a mountain in the region of Pišiyāuvādā.


    A. K. Sanjian

     Armenian historian, born at Tabrīz in the 1590s, died at Etchmiadzin in Armenia in 1670.


    B. Spuler

    Daryā(ča)-ye Ḵᵛārazm, inland sea in western Turkestan, bounded since 1924 and 1936 by Karakalpaqistan (part of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan) in the south and Kazakhstan in the north.


    F. Rosenthal, J. C. Greenfield, S. Shaked

    The Arameans, the speakers of all those dialects, are first directly mentioned in cuneiform texts from the end of the twelfth century B. C. where they are said to belong to the Akhlame group of people. In the course of time, various names such as Chaldean, Nabatean, Syrian, and Assyrian, came into use for Aramaic-speaking peoples.

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    Armenian form of AHURA MAZDĀ.

  • ARĀN (1)


    or ALĀN, Inscr. Mid. Pers. ʾlʾn-, Inscr. Parth. ʾrdʾn, ʾln-. See ALANS, ALBANIA, ARRĀN.

  • ARĀN (2)


    See ḤOLVĀN.

  • ĀRĀN (3)

    ʿA. N. Rażawī

    a small town about 10 km north of Kāšān.