TAʿLIM O TARBIAT, title of a monthly periodical published by the Ministry of Culture as its organ from Farvardin 1304 until Esfand 1306 Š./April 1925-March 1927, and again from Farvardin 1313 until Tir 1317 Š./April 1934-July 1938, when the title was changed to Āmuzeš o parvareš. According to the directive issued by the ministry, the motive for the publication of Taʿlim o tarbiat was to disseminate useful educational ideas for the benefit of educators and to familiarize the public with the history and civilization of other nations (Ṣadr Hāšemi, II, p. 128; Āryanpur, III, p. 64). The publication and management of the journal was the responsibility of ʿAli-Aṣḡar Ḥekmat, who was then serving as the head of the inspectorate (Edāra-ye taftiš) of the ministry under Neẓām-al-Din Ḥekmat, the acting minister. At the beginning of the second phase of publication in March/April 1934, Naṣr-Allāh Falsafi assumed its management for over a year. ʿAli-Akbar Mošir Salimi was the director in charge from Ordibehešt 1314 until mid 1317 Š./May 1935-June 1938, but he was never acknowledged as such in the journal (Ganjina-ye asnād, p. 49).

Taʿlim o tarbiat published the ministry’s directives and new regulations, as well as statistical information relevant to the issues concerning education, besides articles on pedagogical theories and the researches conducted in that area. The journal greatly benefited from the contributions of the leading educators and scholars of the time (e.g., Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda, Badiʿ-al-Zamān Foruzānfar, Aḥmad Bahmanyār), particularly during its second phase. The publication of an article by Taqizāda, entitled “Jonbeš-e melli-e adabi,” in which the author had criticized the Farhangestān for the coining of new words, which enjoyed royal support and encouragement, led to the removal of all copies of the issue in question (5/5, 1935) by the police, and prompted a series of attacks on Taqizāda in Eṭṭelāʾāt, Irān, and Kušeš newspapers (Bayāt and Kuhestāni-nežād, eds., I, p. 380; Taqizāda, pp. 256-7; Afšār, ed., p. 192). However, both Taqizāda and Ḥekmat, then the minister of culture, escaped the royal wrath because they were abroad at the time.

Taʿlim o tarbiat was printed at Bosfor printing house during its first year of publication. It was then printed at Fārus, and during its last years at the printing house of the Ministry of Culture. It appeared in 48 single-column pages of 15 x 23 cm during the first year of publication, and then the number of pages was increased to 64. The annual subscription rate was once raised from 25 to 35 krans. According to document 25/43/5-292, kept at the Iran National Archives Organization (Sāzmān-e asnād-e melli-e Irān), the number of subscribers to Taʿlim o tarbiat in 1936-37 was as low as 35.

Complete and incomplete collections of Taʿlim o tarbiat are available at major libraries in Iran, as well as abroad at the libraries of the Academy of Sciences in Baku, the Public Library in St. Petersburg, the British Library, the library of the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London, and the libraries of Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (Paris), Tübingen University, the University of Chicago, and Princeton University.


Iraj Afšār, ed., Nāmahā-ye Tehrān, Tehran, 1999. Āryanpur, Az Ṣabā tā Nimā, 3 vols., Tehran, 1973-95, III, pp. 63-64.

Kāva Bayāt and Masʿud Kuhestāni-nežād, eds., Asnād-e maṭbuʿāt, 1288-1320 H. Š., 2 vols., Tehran, 1993.

Šahin Esfandiāri et al., Maṭbuʿāt-e Irān: fehrest-e taḥlili-e Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Majles-e senā, Tehran, 1979, p. 68.

Fehrest-e majallāt-e mawjud dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazi-e Āstān-e qods-e rażawi, Mashad, 1982, no. 133.

Ganjina-ye asnād, nos. 29-30, Spring-Summer 1998, p. 49.

Rudolf Mack and Robert D. McChesney, “A List of Persian Serials in the Princeton University Library,” unpublished monograph, Princeton, N.J., 1971.

Foruḡ-al-Zamān Nuri Eṣfahāni, Rāhnemā-ye maṭbuʿāt:fehrest-e našriyāt-e mawjuddar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye ʿomumi-e Ebn Meskuya-ye Eṣfahān, Isfahan, 2001, pp. 99-100.

ʿIsā Ṣadiq, Yādgār-e ʿomr, 4 vols., Tehran, 1961-77, II, pp. 215-16.

Ṣadr Hāšemi, Jarāʾed o majallāt, II, no. 388 (pp. 128-32).

Bižan Sartipzāda and Kobrā Ḵodāparast, Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā-ye mawjud dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye melli-e Irān, Tehran, 1978, no. 161.

Ursula Sims-Williams, Union Catalogue of Persian Serials and Newspapers in British Libraries, London, 1985, no. 590 (p. 586).

Giti Šokri, “Fehrest-e ruz-nāmahā va majallahā-ye fārsi dar Moʾassasa-ye āsiāʾi-e Dānešgāh-e Širāz,” FIZ 29, p. 358.

Mortażā Solṭāni, Fehrest-e majallahā-ye fārsi az ebtedā tā sāl-e 1320 šamsi, Tehran, 1977, no. 66 (p. 38).

Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda, Zendegi-e ṭufāni: ḵāṭerāt-e Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda, ed., Iraj Afšar, Tehran, 1994.

Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾi, Vazirān-e moʿāref wa farhang-e Irān, Tehran, 1996, pp. 275, 325, 345.

March 6, 2009

(Nassereddin Parvin)

Originally Published: March 6, 2009

Last Updated: March 6, 2009