Table of Contents

  • QĀʾĀNI

    Alyssa Gabbay

    (1808-1854), one of the most prominent poets of the Qajar era and a well-known practitioner of the Literary Return (bāzgašt-e adabi) style.

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    R. Boucharlat

    an ancient site some 40 km south of the Persepolis. Its Persian name (“place of the footprints”) was explained to the 19th-century visitor as due to “the curious marks in the rocks, which are said to be the foot-prints of Ali’s horse.” The date generally accepted is the Achaemenid or the post-Achaemenid period. 

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    D. Gershon Lewental

    an engagement during the mid-630s CE in which Arab Muslim warriors overcame a larger Sasanian army and paved the way for their subsequent conquest of Iran. The battle took place at a small settlement on the frontier of Sasanian Iraq.

  • QĀʾENI, Shaikh Moḥammad-ʿAli

    Minou Foadi

    (1860-1924), prominent Bahai apologist and director of the Bahai school in Ashkabad.

  • QAJAR DYNASTY viii. “Big Merchants” in the Late Qajar Period

    Gad G. Gilbar

    Big merchants (tojjār-e bozorg), reached the height of their influence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  They made a major contribution to the country’s economic growth and had a significant impact on key political developments in the late Qajar period.

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xii. The Qajar-Period Household

    Shireen Mahdavi

     Qajar society was pluralistic, in the sense that different groups of various social status existed in it. It was patrilineal and patriarchal, and residence after marriage was normally patrilocal.

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xiii. Children’s Upbringing in the Qajar Period

    Shireen Mahdavi

    a description of rituals and ceremonies in different periods of children's lives, as well as their education and place in household duties, during the Qajar dynasty.

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xiv. Qajar Cuisine

    Shireen Mahdavi

    Persian cuisine is an art that has evolved through centuries of refinement, culminating in the Qajar period and continuing in present-day Iran. Qajar cuisine has its origins in Iran’s ancient empires, particularly that of the Sasanians. 


    Eden Naby

    (The voice of truth), a monthly publication of the mainly French Catholic Lazarist Mission in Urmia which ran from 1897 to 1915. It was the second periodical to appear in Urmia wholly published in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, after Zahrire d-bahra (1849-1918). 

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    Dietrich Huff

    The rocky plateau stretching in an east-west direction above the river bend was fortified against the adjoining mountainside by a traverse wall that ran up from the northern and southern cliffs to a semi-circular bastion on the spine of the crest. There are rubble stonewalls along the northern and southern precipices with fort structures on outcrops.

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    Sina Goudarzi and Bahram Grami

    a common name for a reed, a perennial plant of the grass family, after its hollow stem is cut and a nib is formed on the tip for calligraphy purposes.

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    Erik Nakjavani

    (1905-1959), commonly referred to as Qamar, popular, pioneering Persian mezzo-soprano. Qamar’s first formal performance as a vocalist took place at Tehran’s Grand Hotel in 1924. 

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    earliest irrigation system in Iran. See KĀRIZ.


    Hengameh Fouladvand

    Matisse, Picasso, and Persian miniature paintings inspired Qandriz’s early figurative work. He chose, as a critic commented, “mystical symbols to combine traditional and modern elements into his abstract designs.” Imaginary elements and heavenly figures, reminiscent of spiritual quests, are characteristics of Qandriz’s early paintings.

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    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1987), master performer of the Persian modal system (dastgāh) and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from Fārs province).


    Houman Sarshar

    Širāzi (1871-1944), innovator, master of Persian classical music, and teacher.


    István Vásáry

    western branch of the Mongolic Qitans, who ruled China as the Liao from 907 to 1124.


    Alessandro Monsutti

    (Qarabāḡ), a district (woloswāli) of Ghazni Province in Afghanistan.






    or QARMATIANS, the name given to the adherents of a branch of the Ismaʿili movement during the 3rd/9th century. See CARMATIANS.