Table of Contents

  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (2)

    Namdar Baghaei-Yazdi

    The Library for Iranian Studies in London was opened to members on 16 November 1991 and at that time the library consisted of a collection of 2,500 books and other publications.

  • Great Britain xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

    F. Safiri and H. Shahidi

    In the late 1930s, the British Government began to fund BBC broadcasts in languages other than English designed to counter anti-British broadcasts from Germany and Italy. The first were  in Arabic, in January 1938, followed by Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America in March. Persian broadcasts followed  in December 1940.

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  • Great Britain xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies

    D. Stronach

    was founded in the spring of 1961, thanks to the vision and commitment of a small group of scholars in Britain, each of whom had a special interest in the arts and letters of Persia.

  • Great Britain xv. British Schools in Persia

    Gulnar E. Francis-Dehqani

    This article will outline the major educational efforts of the British missionaries in Persia from 1871. The British schools in Persia were primarily founded by missionary organizations, most notably the Church Missionary Society (CMS).

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  • Greece

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry.

  • Greece i. Greco-Persian Political Relations

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    After subjugating the Medes, Cyrus II started his first expedition westwards. In 547 B.C.E. he turned against Lydia and its king, Croesus.

  • Greece ii. Greco-Persian Cultural Relations

    Margaret C. Miller

    This article is addresses the evidence for receptivity to Persian culture in Greece, the North Aegean, and West Anatolia, including receptivity on the part of the non-Greek peoples of these regions.

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  • Greece iii. Persian Influence on Greek Thought

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    The idea of Iranian origins of Greek philosophy had a legendary aura, either by declaring that Pythagoras had been Zoroaster’s pupil in Babylon, or by writing, as did Clement of Alexandria, that Heraclitus had drawn on “the barbarian philosophy.”

  • Greece iv. Greek Influence on Persian Thought

    Mansour Shaki

    After the conquest of Ionia, Lydia, and other regions of Asia Minor by Cyrus II, the Persians came into close contact with the Hellenes, their skilled artisans, renowned physicians, artists, statements, men-of-arms, and the like.

  • Greece vi. The Image of Persia and Persians in Greek Literature

    Reinhold Bichler and Robert Rollinger

    The image of Persia in Greek literature is highly stylized and may not be considered as a reflection of actually experienced cultural contacts.


    Rémy Boucharlat

    The influx of elements of Greek art into Persia during the Achaemenid period was primarily the result of the importation of artists and artisans from Hellenized Asia Minor and rarely due to a direct supply of objects.

  • Greece viii. Greek Art in Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Northwest India

    Claude Rapin

    The emergence of Greek art as a phenomenon following the expedition of Alexander the Great was a major cultural event in Central Asia and India. Its effects were felt for almost a thousand years, down to the early Islamic period.

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  • Greece ix. Greek and Persian Romances

    Richard Davis

    Three Persian verse romances of the 11th century stand out as significantly unlike other Persian verse romances, and they share enough features with the Greek Hellenistic Romances to suggest the existence of links between the two sets of tales.


    Gül Russell

    The question of Greek medicine in Iran is closely bound up with the history of Greco-Arabic medicine, which developed with the impetus of the “translation movement” between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

  • Greece xii. Persian Loanwords and Names in Greek

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    The Greeks came into direct contact with speakers of Iranian languages when Cyrus II conquered the Lydian empire in 547 B.C.E. However, the possibility of linguistic borrowings in prehistoric times cannot be ruled out.

  • Greece xiii. Greek Loanwords in Middle Iranian Languages

    Philip Huyse

    The number of loanwords borrowed from Greek into the pre-Islamic Iranian languages is far less impressive than the number of borrowings in the other direction.

  • Greece xiv. Greek Loanwords in Medieval New Persian

    Lutz Richter Bernburg and EIr

    In the Islamic period, Persian learned literature was largely modelled upon Arabic antecedents and that these, whether  translations from Greek or Arabic originals, strove to minimize foreign and unfamiliar-sounding vocabulary.

  • GREECE xv. Ancient Greek borrowings of Persian herbs and plants of medicinal value

    Luigi Arata

    It is well attested that the ancient Greek city-states (poleis) and the Persian Empire had continuous commercial contact which influenced the ordinary life of both parties.

  • GREECE xvi. Greek Ideas and Sciences in Sasanian Iran

    Philippe Gignoux

    The arrival of Greek ideas and sciences in Iran have been traced through translated texts.  However, there are allusions and references that we can glean from Pahlavi literature, and on occasion in longer passages where the closely related medical and philosophical theories of the ancient East indicate their origins in Greek or Indian civilization. Some of these references go back as far as the Achaemenid period too.


    Evangelos Venetis

    economic and political trends beginning in the 19th century led to the establishment of a significant Greek community in Iran.

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