Table of Contents

  • FĀRĀBĪ ii. Logic

    Deborah L. Black

    Many of his writings take the form of commentaries on, or summaries of, the Aristotelian Organon, which, following the tradition of the Alexandrian commentators of late antiquity, included Porphyry’s Isagoge as well as Aristotle’sRhetoric and Poetics.

  • FĀRĀBĪ iii. Metaphysics

    Thérèse-Anne Druart

    His metaphysics scillates between two main projects: (1) a study of what is common to all beings, i.e., being as such and other universal notions such as oneness, and (2) a study of the ultimate causes, i.e., God and other immaterial beings. 

  • FĀRĀBĪ iv. Fārābī and Greek Philosophy

    Dimitri Gutas

    Fārābī’s philosophical moorings and direct affiliation lie in the Greek neo-Aristotelian school of Ammonius in Alexandria, in the form in which it survived and was revived after the Islamic conquest among Syriac Christian clerics and intellectuals in the centers of Eastern Christianity in the Fertile Crescent.

  • FĀRĀBĪ v. Music

    George Sawa

    In the history of Middle Eastern music Fārābī remains unequalled as a theorist, but this aspect of his manifold achievements has been obscured by his more widely known writings on philosophy.

  • FĀRĀBĪ vi. Political Philosophy

    Muhsin Mahdi

    The central theme of Fārābī’s political writings is the virtuous regime, the political order whose guiding principle is the realization of human excellence by virtue. 


    Daniel Balland

    Farāh has retained practically the same name since the first millennium B.C.E. At the end of the first century B.C.E, the “very great city” of Phra in Aria was reckoned as a major stage on the overland route between the Levant and India.

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    Wolfram Kleiss

    common place name throughout Persia, without any cultural or historical significance. The three best-known locales with this name are a city quarter of Tehran, the remains of a palace complext near Isfahan, and an Abbasid pleasure palace on the Caspian sea.

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    Reżā Reżāzāda Langarūdī

    a district (baḵš) in Tafreš subprovince (šahrestān) of the Central (Markazī) province.


    Hafez Farmayan

    (1847-1913) Persian diplomat and author of a travelogue (safar-nāma) intended to show how a Shiʿite pilgrim could successfully undertake the journey to Mecca. In it one learns much about Arabia, the Ottoman empire, and the Sunnis in general.

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