Table of Contents


    Ī. Afšār

    (d. 1892-93), MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, Persian man of letters, poet, instructor of Persian in London, and self-styled prophet.



    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

  • BĀVĪ

    P. Oberling

    (or Bābūʾī), a Luri-speaking tribe of the Kohgīlūya, in Fārs.


    J. Perry

    a Shiʿite tribe of Ḵūzestān. They range east and south of Ahvāz, between the Kārūn and Jarrāḥī rivers, to the south of Band-e Qīr and north of Māred.


    F. Thordarson

    “horse dedication,” a funeral rite practiced by the Ossetes until recent times.

  • BAY


    See BARG-E BŪ.

  • BAYĀN (1)

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    term (lit. “statement,” “exposition,” “explanation”) from an early date encompassing the various arts of expression in speech and writing. Often ʿelm-e bayān merely denotes rhetoric as a whole.

  • BAYĀN (2)

    D. M. MacEoin

    term applied to the writings of the Bāb in general and to two late works in particular, the Bayān-e fārsī and al-Bayān al-ʿarabī.


    Tahsin Yazici

    (d. 1597), Shaikh Moṣtafā, a Turkish poet who composed on the ḡazals of Hāfeẓ.


    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    (1906-68), specialist in Persian manuscripts and calligraphy and pioneer in the field of Persian librarianship.


    G. Doerfer

    an important Turkish tribe. A substantial proportion of the Bayāt people must have entered Iran in the train of the Saljuq invaders in the first half of the 11th century.

  • BAYĀT(Ī)

    J. During

    one of the old modes of the Irano-Arabic musical tradition, mentioned for the first time by Šayḵ Ṣafadī (15th century).


    M. Caton

    or ĀVĀZ-e EṢFAHĀN, a musical system based on a specific collection of modal pieces (gūšahā) which are performed in a particular order.


    M. Caton

    or KORD-e BAYĀT, a part of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in Persian music.


    M. Caton

    a musical system (āvāz, naḡma) and one of the branches of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in traditional classical music.


    F. Thordarson

    (Ger.: Georg-Gappo Baiew; 1869-1939), Ossetic man of letters.


    M.-T. Dānešpažūh

    literally “white,” usually a small paper notepad that opens lengthwise and was carried around in an inside pocket. Several such MS are found in various libraries.


    R. W. Edwards

    (Bāyazīd; Osm. Bayezid), a stronghold located three kilometers southeast of the modern village of Doğubayazit, Turkey, and approximately twenty-five kilometers southwest of Mt. Ararat, important in the defense of Anatolia against invasion from Iran.


    P. Oberling

    (also Bāybūrdlū), a Turkic tribe of northwestern Iran whose only vestiges seem to be the names of a few historical personalities.


    B. Spuler

    a son of Ṭaraḡāy and grandson of Hülegü (Hūlāgū), reigned as il-khan in Iran, 1295.


    C. E. Bosworth

    a rural area (rostāq) of medieval Khorasan, between the district of Nīšāpūr and the eastern borders of Qūmes, and its town, also known as Sabzavār.


    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN, secretary at the Ghaznavid court and renowned Persian historian (995-1077).


    H. Halm

    B. ŠOʿAYB ʿEJLĪ NAYSĀBŪRĪ (d. 936), a jurist who helped promote the spread of the Shafeʿite school of Islamic law in Khorasan.


    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MOḤAMMAD, 10th-century Arabic littérateur, author of a work of adab.


    H. Halm

    ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ B. ZAYD (ca. 1097-1169), also known as Ebn Fondoq, an Iranian polymath of Arab descent, author of the Tārīḵ-e Bayhaq.


    P. Jackson

    Mongol general and military governor in northwestern Iran (fl. 1228-1259). He belonged to the Besüt tribe and was a kinsman of Jengiz Khan’s general Jebe (Jaba).


    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of the medieval Islamic region of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania, lying in the triangle between the Kor and Aras (Araxes) rivers.


    E. Glassen

    (b. 1392-93, d. 1422-23?), a Timurid prince and grandson of Tīmūr, active in Fārs.


    N. H. Ansari

    (or BAYRĀM) KHAN, Moḥammad Ḵān(-e) Ḵānān (d. 1561), an illustrious and powerful Iranian noble at the court of the Mughal emperors Homāyūn and Akbar.


    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    (d. 1367-69), the beloved companion (nadīm) of Sultan Oways, second ruler (r. 1356 to 1374-75) of the Jalayerids.


    P. Oberling

    a Lor tribe of the Pīš(-e)Kūh region in Lorestān.


    H. R. Roemer

    B. ŠĀHROḴ B. TĪMŪR (1397-1433), Timurid prince who played an important role as a statesman and a patron of art and architecture and was himself a first-class calligrapher.


    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh, T. Lentz

    an illuminated and gilded manuscript of Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma measur­ing 26.5 × 38 cm, containing 346 pages and twenty-one paintings, written in nastaʿlīq, and kept in the former Royal Library (Golestan Palace Museum, no. 6) in Tehran. i. The manuscript.  ii. The paintings.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BAYT

    A. Hassanpour

    a genre of Kurdish folk art, an orally transmitted story which is either entirely sung or is a combination of sung verse and spoken prose.


    M. Momen

    (House of Justice), a Bahai administrative institution.


    C. E. Bosworth

    a Turkish commander who controlled the town of Bost in southern Afghanistan during the middle years of the 10th century.


    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of medieval Islamic Fārs (modern Tall-e Bayżā), 25 miles north of Shiraz, 8 farsaḵs according to the medieval geographers and one stage east of the Sasanian and early Islamic town of Eṣṭaḵr.


    E. Kohlberg

    Shafeʿite jurist, Asḥʿarite theologian, and renowned Koran commentator (13th-14th centuries).

  • BĀZ

    H. Aʿlam

    general term formerly applied particularly to birds from the genera Falco (falcons) and Accipiter (hawks), which were traditionally prized and trained for hunting game birds.


    Moḥammad-Taqī Dānešpažūh

    books or treatises on the keeping and training of falcons.


    D. Huff

    (Baz-e Hur), a village and site of some important Sasanian structures on the road from Mašhad to Torbat-e Ḥaydarīya.



    “toilette.” See COSMETICS.


    Multiple Authors

    “market (place),” term which may refer to: a market day, usually once a week, when farmers bring their wares to the market to sell; a fair held at specific times; and the physical establishments, the shops, characterized by specific morphology and architectural design.

  • BAZAR i. General

    Michael E. Bonine

    Large interior courtyard caravanserais are an integral part of most bāzārs, particularly in the larger cities where international trade was once significant. Around the courtyard are single- or two-storied complexes of offices occupied by wholesalers, although the bottom level is more often for storage and even contains shopkeepers or craftsmen.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĀZĀR ii. Organization and Function

    Willem Floor

    Both weekly market days and regular fairs occurred in pre-Islamic times. Among the latter, for example, was the bāzār of Māḵ in Bukhara.

  • BAZAR iii. Socioeconomic and Political Role

    Ahmad Ashraf

    The bāzār in the Islamic city has been (1) a central marketplace and craft center located in the old quarters of the town; (2) a primary arena, along with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability; and (3) a sociocultural milieu of a traditional urban life-style.

  • BAZAR iv. In Afghanistan

    E. F. Grötzbach

    In Afghanistan a bāzār is a collection of shops and workshops forming a topographic unit. As regards size and layout, however, there can be great differences.

  • BAZAR v. Temporary Bazars in Iran and Afghanistan

    M. Bazin

    The most firmly established form of periodic bāzār is certainly the one observed in the Caspian lowlands of Iran and especially in the central plain of Gīlān, where weekly bāzārs (bāzār-e haftagī) are part of a particularly long tradition.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    an architectural monument of Shiraz from the reign of Karīm Khan Zand (Wakīl, r. 1750-79) and still an important center of business.


    Bernard Hourcade

    a village on the Turkish-Iranian frontier eighteen kilometers northwest of Mākū,  West Azerbaijan province. The development of this village is very recent and limited, linked with the nearby frontier crossing.