Table of Contents

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    G. Doerfer

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    L. Johanson

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    H. Javadi and K. Burrill

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    Iranian elements in the development of the Azeri tradition were numerous, as is shown by modern terminology (čahār meżrāb, bardāšt), as well as by certain pieces in the repertoire.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.

  • AZES

    D. W. Mac Dowell

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 BCE to CE 30.


    M. Baqir

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.


    L. P. Smirnova

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • AŽI