Table of Contents


    B. W. Robinson

    Sir (1864-1930), British orientalist.


    P. Jackson

    10th Il-khan of Iran (r. 736/1335-36).


    H. Gaube

    medieval city and province in southwestern Iran between Ḵūzestān and Fārs.


    C. E. Bosworth

    a region of eastern Transcaucasia.


    M. L. Chaumont

    Greek historian (2nd cent. CE).

  • ARROWS in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    came in use along with the bow, and the two developed in parallel. In the Bronze Age in eastern Iran, metal arrowheads of bronze were widespread, while skillfully made stone arrowheads, inherited from the earlier period, remained in use. 


    Multiple Authors

    (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE.

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  • ARSACIDS i. Origins

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    The various accounts of the origins of Arsaces, the founder of the dynasty, reflect diverse developments over time in political ideologies.

  • ARSACIDS ii. The Arsacid dynasty

    K. Schippmann

    The rise of the Arsacids is closely linked to the history of Seleucids, who lost large parts of their Iranian possessions within a period of roughly fifteen years.

  • ARSACIDS iii. Arsacid Coinage

    M. Alram

    Coins minted in Iran under the Arsacids superseded Seleucid currency in the territories successively taken from the Seleucids. In essential denominations, iconography, and script, they are markedly Hellenistic, but they also show Iranian features.

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