GARMAPADA (g-r-m-p-d-, attested only in gen. Garmapadahya), name of the fourth month (June-July) of the Old Persian calendar, mentioned in Darius I’s Bisotun inscription, DB I 42, III 7 f., and 46 (see Kent, Old Persian, p. 161a, 183ab). It is equivalent to Babylonian Duʾuzu and Elamite Hallime (which name ist attested several times in the Persepolis tablets; see R. T. Hallock, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Chicago, 1969, p. 74; W. Hinz and H. Koch, Elamisches Wörterbuch, Berlin, 1987, pp. 600 f.). In the Persepolis tablets the Old Persian name is very often rendered as Elamite Karmabat(t)aš (with variants; see Hallock, p. 711a; Hinz and Koch, p. 443). The name Garmapada is composed of the stems Oiran. *garma- “hot; heat” and *pada- “step, footprint, track; (also) floor, place, station.” Neither the usual translation “heat-station” (even not the variant regarding time, “moment of heat”) nor adjectival “having the place of heat” (see Kent, p. 54a) take into account, however, that for *pada- the meaning “floor, place, station” is reliably attested neither in Vedic nor in the earlier Iranian languages. For formal and factual reasons the most probable interpretation therefore may be assuming a possessive compound with the factitive meaning “0the month) causing blazing hot steps (when treading on the ground).”



Given in the text. See also R. Schmitt “Zu den altpersischen Monatsnamen und ihren elamischen Wiedergaben” (in preparations).

(Rüdiger Schmitt)

Originally Published: July 20, 2002

Last Updated: July 20, 2002