GARDEN (bāḡ), referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions. Numerous gardens mentioned in historical texts are designated by name, either of the founder, or of the flora or fauna associated with them. Poetical names, such as delgošā (easing the heart) or jahānnemā (image of the world), commonly occur after the 15th century. See also BĀḠ.

i. Achaemenid.

ii. Islamic Period.

iii. Persian Influence on Indian Gardens.

iv. Botanical.

v. In Persian Literature.

vi. In Persian Art.

(Multiple Authors)

Originally Published: December 15, 2000

Last Updated: February 2, 2012

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Vol. X, Fasc. 3, pp. 297-313