FRĀDA, a Margian leader. According to the Bīsotūn (q.v.) inscription of Darius I (3.10-21), the people of Margiana, (i.e., Marv) revolted against him and made Frāda their chief (king according to the Elamite and Babylonian versions). Darius ordered Dādaraši, satrap of Bactria, to crush the rebellion; Frāda was defeated on the 23rd day of the month of Kislīmu (Āçiyādiya in the OPers. calendar, q.v.). It is, however, not known whether this defeat occurred in the accession year of Darius or in his first regnal year, and, depending on the year, the choice is either 10 December 522 or 28 December 521 B.C.E. Since Frāda is depicted on the Bīsotūn relief at the last place among the rebellious leaders who mutinied in 522-521 B.C.E., his defeat apparently took place on 28 December 521. The Babylonian version of the inscription also mentions that Frāda was executed. According to the Aramaic version, 55,243 of Frāda’s followers were killed and 6,972 captured (the Babylonian version mentions 6,572 captured and 55,200 killed, but the last number is damaged).



R. Borger, “Die Chronolgie des Darius-Denkmals am Behistun-Felsen,” Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen 3, 1982, pp. 118-24.

M. A. Dandamaev, A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, tr. W. J. Vogelsang, Leiden etc., 1989, pp. 125-26.

J. C. Greenfield and B. Porten, The Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great. Aramaic Version, Corp. Insc. Iran, pt. 1, V, Text I, London, 1982, p. 34.

R. T. Hallock, “The ‘One-year’ of Darius I,” JNES 19, 1960, pp. 37 f.

W. Hinz, Darius und die Perser: Eine Kulturgeschichte der Achämeniden I, Baden-Baden, 1976, pp. 160 f. Kent, Old Persian, p. 125.

W. Nagel, “Frada, Skuncha, und der Saken-Feldzug des Darius I,” AMI, suppl. 10, pp. 175-79.

W. Vogelsang, “Four Short Notes on the Bisutun Text and Monument,” Iranica Antiqua 21, 1986, pp. 124-27.

E. N. von Voigtiander, The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Babylonian Version, Corp. Insc. Iran, pt. 1, II, London, 1978, p. 31.

(Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

Originally Published: December 15, 2000

Last Updated: January 31, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. X, Fasc. 2, pp. 122-123