BĪD (also deraḵt-e bīd or bīd-bon), common desig­nation in modern Persian for the genus Salix L., willow.

i. The word.

ii. The tree.

i. The Word

New Persian bīd (earlier bēḏ, Middle Persian wēt, Avestan vaēti (fem.) “willow (branch),” cf. Old Indian veta (masc.) “aquatic climbing plant” or “branch,” Greek itéa, Latin vitis “vine,” Old High German wīda, are all derived from Indo-European *wei-t- “to turn, bend, wind.” In modern Iranian dialects the word takes forms such as Kurdish or , Baluchi gēt, Pashto wala (see AirWb., col. 1314; Grundriss I, 2nd ed., pp. 49, 299, and elsewhere; Mayrhofer, Dictionary III, pp. 254f.; G. Morgenstierne, An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto, Oslo, 1927, p. 86; Horn, Etymologie and Hübschmann, Persische Studien, no. 251; Pokorny, p. 1122; W. Eilers, Westiranische Mundarten aus der Sammlung Wilhelm Eilers I (Ḵᵛānsārī), p. 5 n. 8 on p. 6, p. 388, and II [Gazi], p. 643).

The concept of “turning, bending, winding” which underlies New Pers. bīd and German Wiede reappears in English “willow” (from Anglo-Saxon welig), Dutch wilg, Greek helikē; but these are from Indo-European *weli-kā and therefore from wel “to turn, wind” (Pokorny, p. 1141). Flexible willow shoots are still used today for making baskets, creels, etc. (bīdbāfī).

The Armenian for “willow” is urī, and the Arabic is ṣafṣāf “tree which grows in rows” (Arabic ṣaff, Semitic ṢP), willows being usually planted in rows along water-courses. The Turkish for “willow” is söğüt (older sögüt), a word of uncertain etymology.

Willow trees are found in all the Iranian lands, mainly along streams and canals, and since their leaves (bīdbarg) exhale a pleasant fragrance in the summer glare it is not surprising that place names with bīd should be widespread. In the following list (taken from Razmārā’s Farhang) the bīd component of most of the names certainly means “willow”: Bīd; with common suffixes Bīdak, Bīda, Bīdakān, Bīdān, Bīdača, Bīd(e)la, Bīdešk or Bīdešg, Bīdū, Bīdūk, Bīdūʾīyā, Bīdābīd, and Bīdbīdak (“rich in willows”), Bīdestān; with attributives Bīdābād, Bīd-e Amīn, Bīd-e Boland, Bīdestaḵr, Bīdestū (in Baluchistan), Bīdgol, Bīd(e)ḵān, Bīdḵᵛān, Bīdḵᵛāb, Bīdḵarakī, Bīdḵayrī, Bīdḵᵛor, Bīd-o-ḵ(a)vīd, Bīdsarā, Bīd-e Sūḵta, Bīd-e Sorḵ, Bīd-e Zāḡ, Bīd-e Zangol, Bīd-e Zard, Bīd-e Zarrīn, also Bēdvāz (moun­tain in Transoxiana, cited by Steingass), and several more which are debatable; with bīd as the second component, Ābbīd, Bāḡbīd, Bāmbīd, Benābīd, Bonbīd, Čāhbīdū, Darbīd, Darabīd, Dehbīd, Gowdbīd Gowdbīdūʾīya, Kūšk(e)bīdak, Padabīd, Padabīda, Palabīd.

Words compounded with bīd given in the dictionaries are bīdgīā (“willow herb”), which means “artichoke,” and bīdgīāh (the same), which is said also to mean “a bird” (= Arabic ṯīl, according to ʿA.-A. Nafīsī, Farhang-­e Nafīsī I, Tehran, 1355 Š./1976, p. 682); bīdkeš “a weapon” (made of willow wood?); bīdmāl “willow twigs used for cleaning or polishing”; bīdvand, a stone with medicinal uses. See ii, below, for names of different kinds of willow.

Like bīd in Iran, söğüt is a widespread toponym in Turkey. Twenty-six villages named simply Söğüt (“Willow”) are listed in the Köylerimiz gazetteer. Also very common are Söğütlü (adjective, but perhaps a corruption of putative söğtülük “willow thicket”), Sögütçük (diminutive, cf. Pers. Bīdak), and compound names such as Söğütalanı “Willow Plain,” Söğütbel and Söğütgediği “Willow Pass,” Söğütdere(si) “Willow Valley” (cf. Darabīd and Darbīd in Iran), Söğüteli “Willow House.”

In Armenian toponymy likewise, urī and urēni mean­ing “willow” often appear: e.g., Urīkʿ “Willow Thicket” (cf. Bīdestdān, Söğütlü), Urēacʿ tapʿ “Willow Plain” (cf. Söğütalanı), Urēacʿ pʿor (cf. Darabid, Söğütdere; see H. Hübschmann, “Die altarmenischen Ortsnamen,” IF 17, 1904, pp. 197-490, esp. p. 462).

Finally it should be noted that bīd “larva” or “moth,” the New Pers. homonym of bīd “willow,” may in spite of the semantic difference be traced to the same Indo-­European root wei-t “to turn” (Pokorny, 1120). Like willows, caterpillars bend and twist. Latin vermis, German wurm, English worm, from Indo-European *wṛmi/wṛmo, similarly evoke the concept of turning and bending.

Bibliography : Given in the text.

(Wilhelm Eilers)


ii. The Tree

A great confusion or indetermination reigns in the taxonomy of Salix L. in Iran. The following inventory is based on Ṯābetī’s detailed account (1976, “Salix,” pp. 662-81), with some synonyms, local names, habitats, etc., also taken from Mobayyen, II, pp. 20-28, Djavanshir, pp. 156-57, etc.

1. Salix acmophylla Boiss.; habitat: some specified localities in the southern Alborz slopes area (where it is called bīd-e zard/zard-bīd, lit. “yellow willow”), Gīlān, Kurdistan, Kermānšāh, Lorestān, Baḵtīārī, Fārs, Yazd, Kermān, Sīstān, Baluchistan, etc.; also reported in Bādḡīs (Afghanistan), Turkmenistan, Caucasus, etc. 2. S. aegyptiaca L. (= S. caprea [auct. non L., according to Ṯābetī], S. Medmeii Boiss., etc.); habitat: Caspian lowland forests from Mīnūdašt (in Gorgān) to Ardabīl and Arasbārān, Qom, Isfahan, Fārs, Kermān, Yazd, etc.; also found in Caucasus, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan; common name: bīd-mešk/-mošk or mešk/mošk-bīd (lit. “musk willow”); local names: mešg-­fīk (in Katūl, Gorgān), sūgūt (in Mīnūdašt, Gorgān), meš-bed (in Gorgān), pīš(ī)pīšī (in Arasbārān), dār­-fešfeša (in Sardašt), etc. (see also its older names and medicinal uses below). 3. S. alba L. (= S. micans Anders., etc.); habitat: most areas in Iran, especially Caspian plain forests from Gorgān to Arasbārān and western Azerbaijan, Lorestān, Kurdistan, Kermānšāh, and Hamadān; also reported in Afghanistan, Turk­menistan, and Caucasus; common name: bīd (or variants thereof); local names: fīk or fek(-dār) (in many places in Māzandarān), bāmešī-fek (in Āmol; lit. “pussy wil­low”), etc. 4. S. babylonica L. (= S. pendula Moench); common designation: bīd-e majnūn (lit. “the mad wil­low,” perhaps alluding to Majnūn, the demented lover of Laylā, who is often depicted under a willow), bīd-e mowalla, or, sometimes, bīd-e moʿallaq (lit. “the hanging willow”), all alluding to its drooping, apparently disheveled, foliage and branches (cf. its English name “weeping/mourning willow;” see also its older, obsolete names below); planted as an ornamental tree (usually grafted on S. excelsa, etc.) in many places in Iran; also reported as native to Soviet Azerbaijan. 5. S. carmanica Bornm.; habitat: Urmia, Kermānšāh, Isfahan, Yazd, Kermān; also growing in Afghanistan; common (?) name: bīd-e marjān(ī) (lit. “coral willow”). 6. S. daph­noides Vill.; habitat: Čālūs valley, Walīābād and Sīāh­bīša in Māzandarān, etc; local names: bīd-derra (in Čālūs valley and Walīābād), (?). 7. S. elbursensis Boiss. (= S. purpurea L. var. pallescens/virescens Anders.); habitat: Čālūs and Karaj valleys, Rūdbār, Kermānšāh, etc.; also found in Anatolia and Caucasus; common name: bīd(-e) sorḵ/sorḵ-bīd (lit. “red willow”); local name: morvār (?). 8. S. excelsa Gmel.; habitat: Caspian forests from Mīnūdašt to Āstārdā, Zagros region from Arasbārān down to Fārs, Kermān, Yazd, northern Khorasan, southern Alborz slopes, etc.; also reported in Afghanistan; local name (in Karaj, etc.) for this species (and the variety Rodinii Skvortsov found in Bandar-e Gaz, Khorasan, and Tall-e Ḵosravī in Fārs): bīd(-e) sīā(h) or sīā(h)-bīd (lit. “black willow”). 9. S. fragilis L.; habitat: Caspian Plain forests, some places in the southern Alborz region (e.g., Karaj, Ṭālaqān, Jovestān, Šahrīār); common name: (bīd-e) bīdḵeštī (lit. “the willow yielding the bīdḵešt manna;” see below); local names: fek(-dār) (in Māzandarān), fūkā/fokā (in Rāmsar and Šahsavār), vī(-dar) (in Gīlān), bīd-e mahnāzī (?). 10. S. pycnostachya Anders. (= S. iranica Bornm., S. ferganensis Nazarov, S. pamirica Drobov, etc.); habitat: some localities in Kermān, northern Khorasan, and Gorgān; also found in Afghanistan; no particular local name(s) recorded for it in our sources. 11. S. songarica Anders.; habitat: Harīrūd valley in Sīstān, eastern Khorasan; local name (recorded by Djavanshir): bīd-e sorḵ. 12. S. triandra L. (= S. amygda­lina L., S. armena Schshk., etc.); habitat: Baluchistan, Gorgān, Azerbaijan, Kurdistan; local name: (dār-)fešfeša (in Kurdistan). 13. S. wilhelmsiana M. B. (= S. angustifolia Willd., S. rosmarinifolia L., etc.); habitat: Karaj and Čālūs valleys, Arasbārān, Urmia, some localities in Luristan, Baḵtīārī, Fārs, etc.; local name: jar-bīd (in Fārs). 14. S. zygostemon Boiss. (= the hybrid S. aegyptiaca x S. elbursensis, etc.); habitat: some south­ern Alborz valleys (e.g. Karaj valley), Arāk, Hama­dān, Baḵtīārī, Mt. Taftān slopes, etc.; local name in most places: (bīd-e)jowdānak (lit. “barley-grain willow”).

Historically, some information—also very confused—about salices and their names is available in Arabic and Persian sources of the Islamic era. They have dealt with the willow under the “standard” heading ḵelāf; however, some other controversial (Arabic or arab­icized) names such as ṣafṣāf are also found. That confusion is reflected in the synonymy given by Ebn Maymūn, (d. a.d. 1204), Šarḥ asmāʾ, no. 393 (ḵelāf = ṣafṣāf = sendār = ḡarab = sawḥar = sālej) and no. 64, where he confuses bahrāmej (S. aegyptiaca) with clematis. As quoted by Ebn al-Bayṭār (II, p. 68), Ḡāfeqī (1st half of the 6th/12th century) says: “Ḵelāf is of numerous kinds, including ṣafṣāf (with two varieties, red and white) and bādāmak.” The physician-botanist Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Tamīmī (d. 380/990), in his Ketāb al-moršed (as quoted by Ebn al-Bayṭār, ibid.), expatiates on the difference between ḵelāf and ṣafṣāf, leading us to the conclusion that ḵelāf, with its fragrant catkins having medicinal properties, corresponded to S. aegyptiaca, whereas ṣafṣāf, which used to be applied to the allied genus Populus (poplar), too, might be identified with S. Safsaf Forsk. or S. alba L. (cf., Toḥfa, nos. 412 and 433, and Ebn Maymūn, p. 197). Ebn Sīnā (d. 428/1037; II, pp. 282, 344) equates ṣafṣāf with ḵelāf;

so does Bīrūnī (on the authority of Bešr b. ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Fazārī, Ketāb al-ṣaydana, pp. 183-84 of Ar. text), adding that “it is bīd-e sepīd [lit. white willow] in Persian.” Ebn Sīnā (p. 93), however, has a very short article under bahrāmaj (= bīd-mešk). Ebn al-Bayṭār (d. 646/1248; p. 122, s.v. bahrāmaj) says it is the same as al­-ḵelāf al-balḵī (lit. the willow native to Balḵ) having “two varieties . . . both of which are sweet-smelling.” Anṭākī (d. 1008/1599; I, p. 124) also equates ḵelāf with ṣafṣāf “in all its varieties,” but mentions “bahrāmaj known as al-balḵī,” and “the bitter ṣafṣāf,” for which he indicates medicinal properties. According to the 11th/17th-­century author Tonokābonī (physician to the Safavid Shah Solaymān; pp. 354-55), “ḵelāf comprises bīd-­mešk = ḵelāf-e balḵī, bīd-e barrī [lit. “wild/common willow”] = ṣafṣāf, and bīd-e mowallah [lit. “love-mad/disheveled willow,” i.e., S. babylonica].” The lexicographer Moḥammad Pādšāh, in his Ānand Rāj (comp. 1306/1888; I, p. 826), on the authority of a certain Majd-al-Dīn ʿAlī Qawsī, reports “seventeen kinds” of willow, of which he mentions only the following species and synonymous names: 1. bīd-mošk/mošk-bīd = gorba-­bīd/bīd-e gorba (lit. cat willow) = bīd-mūš (lit. mouse willow, probably a corruption of bīd-mošk) = bīd-e balḵī; 2. sorḵ-bīd; 3. sīāh-bīd; 4. bīd-e mowallah = bīd-e majnūn = bīd-e ṭabarī (lit. the willow native to Ṭabare­stān; but he explains, p. 828, s.v. bīd-e ṭabarī, that this is equated by some with bīd-mošk).

Following is a short account of the medicinal properties of the willow as indicated by some physicians-­pharmacologists of the Islamic era. Concerning its pharmacodynamic “nature,” Abū Bakr Kāsānī, in his Persian adaptation and expansion (1st half of the 8th/14th century) of Bīrūnī’s Ṣaydana (I, pp. 281-83), when mentioning a view about the origin of the appellation ḵelāf (in Arabic also meaning “opposite, contrary”), says: “Anything bitter is warm by nature, save bīd, which is bitter but cold in nature; that is why it has been called ḵelāf in Arabic” (see Levey in Samarqandī, pp. 227-­28, for the Sumerian and Akkadian cognates of the Ar. ḵelāf “willow”). Then (II, p. 848), on the authority of Abū Zayd Arrajānī (fl. 4th/10th cent.), he states that both the bīd and its blossoms are cold in the first degree, and dry in the second. According to Tamīmī (loc. cit.) inhaling the sweet smell of ḵelāf (= S. aegyptiaca) flowers is beneficial to hot-tempered people, because it moistens (i.e. refreshes) their brains and alleviates the violent bilious headaches to which they are susceptible (dohn al-ḵelāf, i.e., its “oil,” has the same virtues). Aḵawaynī Boḵārī (d. ca. 373/983?), author of the oldest extant medical treatise in Persian, Hedāyat al-motaʿallemīn, prescribes the use of the leaves of the willow (to which he always refers as bēd/bīd) and of the willow oil (rowḡan-e bīd) in some cases and ways which seem to derive from his personal experience (cf. Ebn Sīnā’s therapeutic description, loc. cit., which follows that of Dioscorides closely). He recommends willow leaves as follows: as part of a mixture to be applied on the head in case of cephalgia (p. 223); with vinegar and rosewater in a poultice (on the abdomen) in splenitis accompanied by fever and mouth dryness (p. 473); in a moraṭṭeb (moistening, refreshing) sitzbath (a decoction of willow leaves, violets, and nenuphars) for a kind of quotidian fever (p. 652); in summer the dwelling of a person sick of hectic fever should be cool and strewn with willow leaves and nenuphars (p. 665); a person affected by smallpox should be laid on a bed of willow leaves (p. 737); similarly a person sick of choleric fever should lie down or sleep in a cool place strewn with willow leaves, and as a prophylactic measure against pestilence the place should be fumigated with willow leaves, apple leaves, sandalwood, and camphor (p. 764). The uses of willow oil: in an ointment (also containing nenuphar oil, vinegar, etc.) to be applied on the head against a kind of cephalgia (p. 223); in another ointment (on the head) against sar-sām (phrenitis, brain fever) (p. 236); in case of tašannoj (convulsions) the body should be “moistened/refreshed” with a “cold” oil such as willow oil or nenuphar oil (p. 266). Aḵawaynī also uses “willow water” in one case: a cataplasm of pounded bāqelā (broad beans) soaked in fresh willow water as a remedy against entešār (pathological pupillary dilatation) (p. 284). Of course, the willow supposedly had medicinal uses more varied than those few mentioned by the Persian author. For example, Anṭākī ­(loc. cit.), who considers “the bitter willow . . . occurring mostly near streams and in cold regions” to be “cold in the second degree, moist in the second or in the first, and dry,” states that, as such, it is a hepatic deobstruent, that it curbs the heart palpitation, thirst, ardor, as well as the stomachal weakness caused by bodily heat and agues. Further, according to him, an ointment of its leaves cures itch and scabies and dissolves edemas; and its “gum” (see bīd-ḵešt below) sharpens the eyesight.

Of all those old therapeutic uses of different salices only a few have practically persisted through modern times in Iran. The following are the important ones.

Bīd-ḵešt. Also called bīd-angabīn/-angobīn (lit. willow nectar), it is a whitish, sweetish dried manna that exudes, according to Polak (p. 287, Pers. tr. p. 460), from the twigs or leaves of S. fragilis L. (bīd-e bīdḵeštī, etc.; see above). Just like their Roman and Greek predecessors who knew about it, the few authors of the Islamic era who have mentioned it do not seem to have been particularly attracted by it (cf., e.g., Ebn Sīnā, loc. cit.). Bīrūnī, (loc. cit.) says (on the authority of Rāzī and Ṭabarī): “The "milk" of ṣafṣāf causes the hair to fall. Some people nick the bark of the willow and collect a gum or milk from it; some people obtain it from its leaves when the tree is in bloom.” Classified by Schlim­mer (p. 359) in the group of pectoral and demulcent mannas of Iran, it is still sometimes administered in popular medicine mainly as a ḵonakī (a cooling agent, Galenically speaking) in typhoid, in febrile labial herpes, and the like.

The ʿaraq (distillate) of bīd-mešk. Historically, “wil­low water” (āb-e bīd, māʾ al-ḵelāf) has been mentioned by a few Islamic authors (Aḵawaynī’s particular pre­scription was indicated above). Ebn Sīnā (loc. cit.) recommends “ḵelāf blossoms and water” as cephalic; Kāsānī (loc. cit.) reports that “bīd water unclogs liver occlusions and helps against jaundice.” However, not only the kind of the willow and the part(s) involved have not been specified, the nature of the “water” in question is not determined, either. But in modern times the bīd-­mešk species and specifically the distillate obtained from its fragrant catkins have been emphasized. Earlier also known as šāh-bīd (lit. king willow), bahrāma (arabicized as bahrāmaj/bahrāmej), etc., bīd-mešk is usually identi­fied with S. aegyptiaca L. (lit. Egyptian willow), which, despite its misleading Linnean designation, had its origin in southwest Asia and especially in Iran (see Meyerhof in Ebn Maymūm, p. 197, and Ṯābetī, 1326, pp. 23-24, both on the authority of Björn Floderus). Some authors, however, have dealt with it as S. caprea L. (e.g., Dymock et al., III, p. 364) and even as S. zygostemon Boiss., (e.g., Schlimmer, p. 497; for an explanation of the confusion of these closely allied species, see Ṯābetī, loc. cit.). Anyhow, bīd-mešk distillate, added to sugared water, is nowadays widely consumed in Iran just as a refreshing drink or as a ḵonakī in fevers and febrile diseases. The commercialized ʿaraq-e bīd-mešk is vaunted as a cordial (mofarreḥ) and nervine. Outside Iran, Dymock et al. (p. 366) remark that “the Persian settlers in India have introduced the flowers . . . and the distilled wateṛ . . . of S. Caprea, both of which are used by the upper classes of Mahometans and Parsees, who consider them to be cephalic and cardiacal, and use them as domestic remedies in almost every kind of slight ailment.”

Bīd as an antipyretic. Some willow species are rich in salicin, an antipyretic discovered only in 1825. As mentioned above, some older authors have noticed the efficacy of various uses of the willow in some fevers or febrile ailments. Until the introduction of the acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin, etc.) and quinine into Iran in modern times and still nowadays in areas where local popular medicine prevails, an infusion of the bark of the young branches of some willow species (e.g., S. alba and S. triandra) was/is used as a remedy for malarial and choleric fever, rheumatic pains, and as a general febrifuge. As prescribed long ago by Aḵawaynī (see above), where willows are available, the practice still persists to lay the patients having a fit of typhoid or malarial fever on a bed of willow twigs and leaves.

Apart from the curative benefits of Salix, some willows are planted all over Iran as ornamental or shade trees, most especially bīd-e majnūn, the weeping willow, which can develop a majestic stature. As such the bīd is often mentioned in Persian poetry in descriptions of the spring. In addition, the pliant, purple or brown, twigs of some species, especially S. alba, S. elbursensis, S. pycnostachya, S. triandra, and S. wilhelmsiana, are used in basketry as a limited, local industry. Further, willow wood is—generally speaking—used in the humid Caspian provinces for fence stakes (because it withstands rot) and in most places in the steppelands as fire-wood.

Despite all those benefits, because willows are dioecious plants without showy flowers or edible fruit, many Persian poets have referred to bīd as a symbol of unfruitfulness, uselessness, and, by extension, unproductive ignorance—as typified in this distich of Saʿdī: “Every tree has a fruit, everybody a honar (talent, craft); but, poor me, I am hopeless and indigent like the willow.” Similarly, some oneirocritics have interpreted the willow as a decaying old man unable to have any offspring, or, in the case of women, as a pretty lady without any possession (see Ḵᵛābgozārī, p. 171). Ano­ther “foible” of the bīd, most probably the weeping willow with long flexible drooping twigs that flutter in the slightest breeze, has been used in Persian language and literature to form similes such as “to shiver like the willow” and “trembling like the willow,” indicating the intensity of somebody’s frailty and fright (for literary quotations, see Dehḵodā, Loḡat-nāma, s.v, bīd, cf. also the current Persian proverbial expression bīd-ī nīst ke az īn bādhā belarzad “(such and such a person) is not a willow to tremble at these winds,” i.e., he/she is too hardy to be frightened/upset by these trifles).



Abū Bakr Rabīʿ b. Aḥmad Aḵawaynī Boḵārī, Hedāyat al-motaʿallemīn fi’l-ṭebb, ed. J. Matīnī, Mašhad, 1344 Š./1965.

Dāʾūd b. ʿOmar Anṭākī, Taḏkerat ūli’l-albāb wa’l-jāmeʿ le’l-ʿajab al-ʿojāb, 2 vols., Cairo, 1308-09/1890-91.

Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī, Ketāb al-ṣaydana fi’l-ṭebb (Al-Biruni’s Book on Pharmacy and Materia Medica), ed. M. Saʿīd and R. E. Elāhī, Karachi, 1973.

K. Javānšīr, Aṭlas-e gīāhān-e čūbī-e Īrān (Atlas of woody plants of Iran), Tehran, 1976.

W. Dymock, C. J. H. Warden, and D. Hooper, Pharmacographia Indica, 3 vols., London, etc., 1890-93.

Ebn al-Bayṭār, al-Jāmeʿ le-mofradāt al-­adwīa wa’l-aḡḏīa, 4 pts. in 2 vols., Būlāq, 1291/1874.

Ebn Sīnā, Qānūn dar ṭebb II, Pers. tr. ʿA. Šarafkandī, Tehran, 1362 Š./1983.

Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī Kāsānī, tr. and adapt. of Bīrūnī’s Ketāb al-ṣaydana; ed. M. Sotūda and Ī. Afšār, 2 vols., Tehran, 1358 Š./1979.

Ḵᵛābgozārī, ed. Ī. Afšār, Tehran, 1346 Š./1967-68.

Ebn Maymūn (Moses Maimonides), Šarḥ asmāʾ al­-ʿoqqār, ed. M. Meyerhof, Cairo, 1940.

Ṣ. Mobayyen, Rostanīhā-ye Īrān: Felūr-e gīāhān-e āvandī (Flore des plantes vasculaires de l’Iran) II, Tehran, 1358 Š./1979.

Moḥammad Pādšāh, Farhang-e Ānand Rāj, ed. M. Dabīrsīāqī, 7 vols., 2nd ed., Tehran, 1363 Š./1984-85.

Jakob Eduard Polak, Persien. Das Land und seine Bewohner, Leipzig, 1865; Pers. tr. K. Jahādārī, Safar-nāma-ye Pūlāk (Īrān o īrānīān), Tehran, 1361 Š./1982.

Najīb-al-Dīn Moḥammad Samarqandī, The Medical Formulary of Al-Samarqandī, tr. and annot. by M. Levey and N. Khaledy, Philadelphia, 1967.

Ḥ. Ṯābetī, Deraḵtān-e jangalī-e Īrān, Tehran, 1326 Š./1948.

Idem, Jangalhā, deraḵtān o deraḵṭčahā-­ye Īrān, Tehran, 1976.

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(Hūšang Aʿlam)

(Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam)

Originally Published: December 15, 1989

Last Updated: December 15, 1989

This article is available in print.
Vol. IV, Fasc. 3, pp. 236-240