Table of Contents


    Christian Bromberger

    a city in the province of Gilān.  It is located at 37°12′ N, long 50°0′ E, to the east of the lower reaches of Safidrud at an altitude of 4 m.



    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57). See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ.

  • LAHUTI, Abu’l-Qasem

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1887-1957), Marxist poet, political activist, and an important contributor to the modern of poetry of Tajikistan.


    Mohammad Reza [Faribors] Hamzeh’ee

    (or Lakk), an ethnic term used for a large number of people residing in a vast part of present-day Iran. The original meaning of the word in Persian, “hundred thousands,” apparently refers to the original number of families that constituted a nomadic tribal confederation.


    V. A. Livshits

    “Rocky sacred place (?),” name applied to gorges not far from the settlement of Kuč, 29 km southeast of Birjand in Khorasan Province (ostān). 


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Arab dynasty that ruled in central Iraq with their capital at Ḥira for roughly three centuries, from about 300 to 602 CE, generally but intermittently as the allies and clients of the Sasanian kings of Persia.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an important fortress of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in the mountainous district of Rudbār, within the region of medieval Islamic Daylam in northwestern Iran.


    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    a city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in Gilān located at lat 37°11′ N, long 50°09′ E on the Langarud River, which cuts through the city, dividing it into two parts.



    name of a Seleucid military colony in Media. See NEHAVAND.


    Daniel T. Potts

    a small island in the Straits of Hormuz to the south of Hormuz Island, located approximately 45 kms southeast of Bandar Abbas and 18 kms southeast of the eastern end of Qeshm Island at lat 26°51′0″ N, long 56°21′0″ E. 

  • LARK


    See ČAKĀVAK.


    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkicized Kurdish tribe in Fārs. The Lašani accompanied Karim Khan Zand to the province in the mid-18th century.

  • LAURENS, Jules Joseph Augustin

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (1825-1901), French artist in drawing, painting, and lithography who depicted Oriental and other subjects.


    Daniel T. Potts

    in the Persian Gulf. also known as Lār(a), Lān, or Allān, located near Naḵilu, has been mentioned in historic documents famous for pearl fishing and piracy.


    Giti Deyhim and EIr.

    a town and district northwest of Tehran.

  • LAWḤ

    M. Momen and B. T. Lawson

    (tablet), a term used distinctively in the Bahai writings as part of the title of individual compositions of Bahāʾ-Allāh addressed to individuals or groups of individuals.

  • LAYARD, Austen Henry

    John Curtis

    Layard is chiefly known for his excavations in northern Iraq between 1845 and 1851. He worked at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh, the North-West Palace of Assurnasirpal II and South-West Palace of Sennacherib, where he found stone bas-reliefs and figures as well as cuneiform tablets and small objects in bronze, glass, and ivory.

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    Keith Hitchins

    (1941-2000), Tajik poet, editor, and public intellectual. Lāyeq continually expanded the boundaries of Tajik poetry through his restless urge to experiment, to cultivate new means of expression and new forms. Despite his eagerness to innovate, he remained faithful to certain traditions. A number of his poems of the 1980s and 1990s observed the norms of Persian-Tajik poetry.

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    Gohar Muradyan

    late 5th century Armenian historian.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’œuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905).  

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